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PostPosted: Sun Sep 09, 2012 5:25 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
This is totally a newb question. I have installed a OpenHome server/service on my LS-VL unit.

I have it running perfectly fine... however if I terminate my terminal session the server stop responding. And I can't figure out the life of me so that it would load during start up/reboot.

Just to let everyone know that I DO have it "running" manually. I have installed Java 1.6.0_34 for Marvell(Kirkwood), and it runs fine. But I can't seem to get it to run on it's own.

The installation steps are for the Synology NAS. So it's a bit different. I tried putting the following:

Code:
#!/bin/sh
sh /usr/local/bubbleserver/bubble.sh start


I have the above script in /etc/init.d/ call "launch" --- I also tried putting this same script in /etc/rc.d/rc2.d <<<--- Similar to what was suggested in the installation for Synology. However it doesn't start up for me on my Linkstation Pro LS-VL


I currently have bubbleupnp server in /usr/local/bubbleserver


if I manually run
Code:
java -jar BubbleUPnPServer.jar

or
Code:
./bubble.sh start

They both runs perfectly fine. I can go to http://<IP ADDRESS>:58050 and access the WebUI. I can even use my SGS3 to access the server and stream. BUT, as soon as I terminate the terminal session it kills itself (for obvious reasons).

Someone can tell me what I am doing wrong that it won't start up during a reboot?

TIA


Last edited by mbze430 on Mon Sep 10, 2012 12:16 am, edited 3 times in total.

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PostPosted: Sun Sep 09, 2012 5:28 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
This is what the bubble.sh script does.


Code:
#!/bin/sh
APPDIR=`dirname "$0"`
APPDATA="appData"
BUBBLEUPNPOPTS="-nologstdout -logFileMaxSize 500000 -dataDir $HOME/$APPDATA"
JVMOPTS="-Xss256k -Djava.awt.headless=true -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true"

case $1 in
        start)
                PID=`ps | grep Bubble | grep java | awk '{print $1}'`
                if [ -n "$PID" ]; then
                        echo "BubbleUPnP Server is already running..."
                        exit 1
                else
                        if [ ! -d "$HOME/$APPDATA" ]; then
                                mkdir $HOME/$APPDATA
                        fi
                        cd "${APPDIR}"
                        /usr/local/jre/bin/java ${JVMOPTS} -jar BubbleUPnPServer
                        exit 0
                fi
        ;;
        stop)
                PID=`ps | grep Bubble | grep java | awk '{print $1}'`
                if [ -n "$PID" ]; then
                        kill $PID
                        exit 0
                else
                        echo "BubbleUPnP Server is not running..."
                        exit 1
                fi
        ;;


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PostPosted: Sun Sep 09, 2012 7:19 am 
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Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2007 10:39 am
Posts: 2596
Put the script into /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/ and ensure it is executable
(e.g. chmod 700).
Do NOT use ANY environment paths (e.g. $HOME). Use absolute paths
only.
If you NEED to use environment paths of a user, "source" the profile of
the user (e.g. via ". /home/myuser/.profile" (Attention: there is a space
between the first dot and the slash)), before doing anything within the
script.
The script gets started during bootup, where you will find circumstances
like in a crontab script -> no environment loaded yet.

_________________
Please do not use private mail (PN/M) to ask questions. Use the proper forum instead. (me)

If there is no verified backup of a dataset, the dataset, by definition, is unimportant. (c't 2012)

RAID (no matter which level) never ever substitutes a backup. (me)


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PostPosted: Mon Sep 10, 2012 12:12 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
I made some changes to the bubble.sh (which was provided by the server app).

I also move "launch" script to /etc/rc.d/extensions.d

But same thing it won't start on a reboot. But manually executing either "launch" or "bubble.sh" it runs. but when I close/disconnect from the terminal the service quits

OH...if I issue this command from my Mac... it runs fine. Meaning that I can quit my terminal and the service continues to run. I am using this as a work around till I can figure out why my LS-VL not running the script.

Code:
ssh root@192.168.69.5 /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/launch


Here is the new modified version of "bubble.sh"
Code:
#!/bin/sh
APPDIR=`dirname "$0"`
APPDATA="appData"
BUBBLEUPNPOPTS="-nologstdout -logFileMaxSize 500000 -dataDir /usr/local/bubbleserver/$APPDATA
JVMOPTS="-Xss256k -Djava.awt.headless=true -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true"

case $1 in
        start)
                PID=`ps | grep Bubble | grep java | awk '{print $1}'`
                if [ -n "$PID" ]; then
                        echo "BubbleUPnP Server is already running..."
                        exit 1
                else
                        if [ ! -d "/usr/local/bubbleserver/$APPDATA" ]; then
                                mkdir /usr/local/bubbleserver/$APPDATA
                        fi
                        cd /usr/local/bubbleserver
                        /usr/local/jre/bin/java ${JVMOPTS} -jar BubbleUPnPServer
                        exit 0
                fi
        ;;
        stop)
                PID=`ps | grep Bubble | grep java | awk '{print $1}'`
                if [ -n "$PID" ]; then
                        kill $PID                                               
                        exit 0                                       
                else                                                 
                        echo "BubbleUPnP Server is not running..."   
                        exit 1                                       
                fi                                                   
        ;;             


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PostPosted: Mon Sep 10, 2012 7:35 am 
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Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2007 10:39 am
Posts: 2596
Try to name the script with ".sh" extension.
Is this REALLY the script content?
If yes, the script will not work. There is a " missing in line 4 and
the case statement is not closed correctly, neither has it a valid
default case.
You assumed that grep and awk are internal commands of the
command shell (read: no absolute path used). Did you verfied
this?

_________________
Please do not use private mail (PN/M) to ask questions. Use the proper forum instead. (me)

If there is no verified backup of a dataset, the dataset, by definition, is unimportant. (c't 2012)

RAID (no matter which level) never ever substitutes a backup. (me)


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PostPosted: Tue Sep 11, 2012 11:00 pm 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
ok I got some help from the BubbleUPnPServer forum. and they have helped me modify the scripts. They run *PERFECTLY* now within Putty Termina service or in a Terminal (Mac). However in my Linkstation LS-VL still doesn't start the script during bootup.

Here is what everything are.

This is bubble.sh located in /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/

Code:
#!/bin/sh
sh /usr/local/bubbleserver/launch.sh


This is launch.sh located in /usr/local/bubbleserver/

Code:
#!/bin/sh
HOMEDIR="$(dirname ${0})"
cd ${HOMEDIR}
/usr/local/jre/bin/java -Xss256k -Djava.awt.headless=true -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true -jar ${HOMEDIR}/BubbleUPnPServer.jar $*   


My $PATH: (this shows that my Java is located in /usr/local/jre/bin/

Code:
# echo $PATH
/opt/bin:/opt/sbin:/usr/local/jre/bin:/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin


NOW! If I do the following command from my Terminal (MAC), it will run perfectly and I can quit my terminal session and BubbleUPnPServer will continue to run. So I think it's something in my Buffalo Linkstation that won't run the script.

Code:
ssh root@192.168.69.5 /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/bubble.sh


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PostPosted: Wed Sep 12, 2012 7:31 am 
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Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2007 10:39 am
Posts: 2596
Are you sure, "dirname" is part of the shells internal commands?
I am not.
If it is NOT part of the internal shell commands, you need to
specify the complete path for calling.
Test with "which dirname" on your LS if it is an internal command.
If not, add the complete path, you got via "which dirname".
During bootup, by default, there is NO environment set. So there
is NO enironment variable PATH available. You have to assume,
that only shell internal commands can be called without a full
qualified path.
Sorry, if I didn't expressed myself as concrete as possible in the
first post.

Btw. the script "bubble.sh" is set as executable?

Edit: try to add a "nohup " in front of the script call in bubble.sh.

_________________
Please do not use private mail (PN/M) to ask questions. Use the proper forum instead. (me)

If there is no verified backup of a dataset, the dataset, by definition, is unimportant. (c't 2012)

RAID (no matter which level) never ever substitutes a backup. (me)


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PostPosted: Wed Sep 12, 2012 8:23 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
# which dirname
/opt/bin/dirname

That's what I got for dirname... I have no idea if that is internal shells or not

Code:
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   25 Nov 29  2011 S39_foolwatch.sh -> ../../init.d/foolwatch.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   26 Nov 29  2011 S40_bittorrent.sh -> ../../init.d/bittorrent.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   22 Nov 29  2011 S40_eyefid.sh -> ../../init.d/eyefid.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   24 Nov 29  2011 S40_flickrfs.sh -> ../../init.d/flickrfs.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   24 Nov 29  2011 S40_lighttpd.sh -> ../../init.d/lighttpd.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   22 Nov 29  2011 S40_mtdaapd.sh -> ../../init.d/itunes.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   21 Nov 29  2011 S40_mysql.sh -> ../../init.d/mysql.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   23 Nov 29  2011 S40_pocketu.sh -> ../../init.d/pocketu.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   23 Nov 29  2011 S40_squeeze.sh -> ../../init.d/squeeze.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   20 Nov 29  2011 S40_sshd.sh -> ../../init.d/sshd.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   20 Nov 29  2011 S40_wafs.sh -> ../../init.d/wafs.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   30 Nov 29  2011 S40_webaxs.sh -> /usr/local/webaxs/sbin/init.sh
lrwxrwxrwx  1 root root   21 May  8 10:20 S91twonky.sh -> /etc/init.d/twonky.sh
-rwxrwxrwx  1 root root   47 Sep 11 12:37 bubble.sh   <<<---looks like it


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PostPosted: Wed Sep 12, 2012 10:09 pm 
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Joined: Sun May 06, 2012 1:45 am
Posts: 185
I thought the scripts only got executed on startup if they were named Snn_scriptname. i.e.

S99_bubble.sh


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PostPosted: Thu Sep 13, 2012 8:06 am 
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Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2007 10:39 am
Posts: 2596
Whenever which returns a path, it is NOT internal.

I am not sure, if the S?? rule is valid for extensions.d scripts.
It is true for init.d (rc*.d) scripts.
Unfortunately I am not at home and can't have a look into
rcS to clarify this.

_________________
Please do not use private mail (PN/M) to ask questions. Use the proper forum instead. (me)

If there is no verified backup of a dataset, the dataset, by definition, is unimportant. (c't 2012)

RAID (no matter which level) never ever substitutes a backup. (me)


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PostPosted: Thu Sep 13, 2012 9:24 pm 
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Joined: Sun May 06, 2012 1:45 am
Posts: 185
Code:
for cmd in /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/S*
do
        cmd_basename=$(basename $cmd)
        case $cmd_basename in
            S[[:digit:]][[:digit:]]B_*)
                echo " * Starting ${cmd_basename#S*_} in background..."
                ${cmd} start > /dev/null 2>&1 &
                ;;
            *)
                ${cmd} start
        esac
done

Looks like the script has to begin with a capital S, unless it's SnnB_scriptname in which case it's run in background (at the moment only Twonky appears to need this).

So, mbze430, try renaming your script to /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/S99_bubble.sh

If that doesn't work try S99B_bubble.sh


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PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2012 11:04 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
Ahh.. no wonder all the scripts are named that way ... guess there was a reason.

I will try that in the morning.

I just wanted to note something. For kicks/test... I tried adding the following in to the beginning of the twonky.sh. The result was that it completely fail to load Twonky and bubbleserver during boot up. After removing the two lines, twonky obviously started again. Does this bring any new information to the table?

Code:
cd /usr/local/bubbleserver
sh /usr/local/bubbleserver/launch.sh



this is the newest script provided by BubbleUPnPServer v0.6.2.. which btw runs fine when I do a ssh command

Code:
#!/bin/sh                                                                                                                                                                     
HOMEDIR="$(/opt/bin/dirname ${0})"                                                                                                                                                   
cd ${HOMEDIR}                                                                                                                                                             
if [ "x$JAVA_HOME" != "x" ]; then                                                                                                                                                   
    JAVA="/usr/local/jre/bin/java"                                                                                                                                                   
else                                                                                                                                                                                 
    JAVA="java"                                                                                                                                                                     
fi                                                                                                                                                                                   

# to make sure ffmpeg is found and used if present in start directory                                                                                                               
export PATH=.:${PATH}                                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                     
# -Xss256k: thread stack size. 256K reduces per-thread memory usage and may prevent "java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: unable to create new native thread" on some systems                 
# -Djava.awt.headless=true: required for image transcoding to work on headless systems (eg no X-Window libraries)                                                                   
                                                                                                                                                                                     
exec /usr/local/jre/bin/java -Xss256k -Djava.awt.headless=true -Djava.net.preferIPv4Stack=true -jar BubbleUPnPServer.jar $*


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PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2012 11:33 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
ok I tried the S99_bubble.sh AND S99B_bubble.sh and bubbleserver did not start...HOWEVER!

I was able to get in to the NAS and did a ps and I was able to capture this...

Code:
3013 root       2264 S   /bin/sh /etc/rc.d/extensions.d/S99_bubble.sh start


So it DOES try to load the script.. but for some reason now it tries to use the "start". Maybe it's failing because of that?

my S99_bubble.sh script is pretty basic...

Code:
#!/bin/sh
cd /usr/local/bubbleserver
sh /usr/local/bubbleserver/launch.sh


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PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2012 11:53 am 
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Joined: Thu Apr 07, 2011 4:35 am
Posts: 23
Maybe this will further help. If I run BubbleUPnPServer script from Putty or from a ssh Terminal, it will just sit there like this.. and never gives me back to the prompt.

Maybe this is what is happening.... when running it as a start up. Something kills it? and then ends BubbleUPnPServer?

Because the only way I know how to get out of the "stall" bubbleserver is doing a CTRL+C

Code:

Sep 14, 2012 3:48:48 AM com.bubblesoft.bubbleupnpserver.server.Main initDataDir
INFO: data directory: /usr/local/bubbleserver
Sep 14, 2012 3:48:48 AM com.bubblesoft.bubbleupnpserver.server.Main run
INFO: starting BubbleUPnP Server 0.6.2...
Sep 14, 2012 3:48:49 AM com.bubblesoft.bubbleupnpserver.server.Options load
INFO: loaded configuration file: /usr/local/bubbleserver/configuration.xml
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.70  - Main                        : starting BubbleUPnP Server 0.6.2...
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.87  - Main                        : java.home: /usr/local/ejre1.6.0_34
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.90  - Main                        : java.version: 1.6.0_34
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.309 - UpnpServiceImpl             : >>> Starting UPnP service...
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.314 - UpnpServiceImpl             : Using configuration: com.bubblesoft.bubbleupnpserver.server.Main$a
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.418 - RouterImpl                  : Creating Router: org.fourthline.cling.transport.RouterImpl
[main            ] WARNING  - 16:00:00.452 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Network interface reports it is not multicast capable: lo
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.792 - StreamServerImpl            : Created server (for receiving TCP streams) on: /192.168.69.5:43894
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.806 - MulticastReceiverImpl       : Creating wildcard socket (for receiving multicast datagrams) on port: 1900
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.821 - MulticastReceiverImpl       : Joining multicast group: /239.255.255.250:1900 on network interface: eth0
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.830 - DatagramIOImpl              : Creating bound socket (for datagram input/output) on: /192.168.69.5
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.847 - UpnpServiceImpl             : <<< UPnP service started successfully
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.850 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Display name: eth0
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.856 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Name: eth0
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.859 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : InetAddress: /192.168.69.5
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.862 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   :  Interface Address
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.866 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   :   Address: /192.168.69.5
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.869 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   :   Broadcast: /192.168.69.255
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.871 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   :   Prefix length: 24
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.875 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Up? true
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.881 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Loopback? false
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.884 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : PointToPoint? false
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.888 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Supports multicast? true
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.891 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Virtual? false
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.894 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : Hardware address: [76, -26, 118, 30, 106, 22]
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.899 - NetworkAddressFactoryImpl   : MTU: 1500
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:00.976 - Main                        : waiting for IGD...
[cling-6         ] INFO     - 16:00:01.115 - RetrieveRemoteDescriptors   : Sending device descriptor retrieval message: (StreamRequestMessage) GET http://192.168.69.1:49165/gatedesc.xml
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:02.766 - Main                        : IGD connection service found
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:02.831 - Main                        : default route: gateway: 192.168.69.1, network interface: eth0
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:02.833 - Main                        : using bind address from network interface list
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:02.847 - Main                        : bind interface: ip: 192.168.69.5, netmask: 255.255.255.0
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.112 - Main                        : successfully got WAN IP Address
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.126 - Main                        : gateway: 98.154.38.188 (johnny.thruhere.net)
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.136 - Main                        : ffmpeg found
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.190 - Main                        : ffmpeg supports libmp3lame encoder
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.192 - Main                        : ffmpeg supports libx264 encoder
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.237 - Main                        : ffmpeg supports -id3v2_version option
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.260 - Main                        : ffmpeg supports the scale video filter
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:04.478 - a                           : loaded /usr/local/bubbleserver/urlcache.dat, 604 entries in 176 ms
[cling-6         ] INFO     - 16:00:08.177 - h                           : Added port mapping: TCP/58051
[cling-4         ] INFO     - 16:00:08.197 - h                           : Added port mapping: TCP/58050
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:08.562 - c                           : added Super Media Server device
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:08.810 - q                           : web app root: webapp
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:09.348 - Version                     : Hibernate Validator null
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:09.953 - q                           : media access log is disabled
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:09.966 - Server                      : jetty-7.6.3.v20120416
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:10.124 - ContextHandler              : started c.b.b.s.d{/SuperMediaServer,null}
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:10.265 - ContextHandler              : started c.b.b.s.d{/dev,null}
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:10.287 - ContextHandler              : started c.b.b.s.d{/res,null}
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.308 - ContextHandler              : started o.e.j.s.ServletContextHandler{/stream,file:/usr/local/bubbleserver/}
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.421 - ContextHandler              : started c.b.b.s.d{/,file:/usr/local/bubbleserver/webapp/}
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.534 - ContextHandler$Context      : Creating Jetty7 async servlet handler for server jetty/7.6.3.v20120416
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.564 - AbstractConnector           : Started SocketConnector@0.0.0.0:58050
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.782 - SslContextFactory           : Enabled Protocols [SSLv2Hello, SSLv3, TLSv1] of [SSLv2Hello, SSLv3, TLSv1]
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.807 - AbstractConnector           : Started SslSocketConnector@0.0.0.0:58051
[main            ] INFO     - 16:00:11.906 - k                           : started discovery maintenance task, interval=300
[cling-9         ] INFO     - 16:00:11.993 - RetrieveRemoteDescriptors   : Sending device descriptor retrieval message: (StreamRequestMessage) GET http://192.168.69.5:9050/TMSDeviceDescription.xml
[cling-10        ] INFO     - 16:00:11.991 - RetrieveRemoteDescriptors   : Sending device descriptor retrieval message: (StreamRequestMessage) GET http://192.168.69.200:49152/virtual/description.xml
[cling-10        ] WARNING  - 16:00:13.246 - StateVariableTypeDetails    : UPnP specification violation, allowed string values don't contain default value: 0
[qtp31918258-55  ] INFO     - 16:00:14.299 - k                           : added comet session: 4ize84wpzn29143zzol6fka2g
[cling-10        ] INFO     - 16:00:14.330 - b                           :


Code:
^Crunning shutdown hook...
shutting down main thread...
shutdown down bridge...
shutdown down upnp service...
shutdown complete
main thread shut down


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PostPosted: Fri Sep 14, 2012 1:10 pm 
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Moderator

Joined: Fri Jun 29, 2007 10:39 am
Posts: 2596
You should try to understand how Linux scripting and terminal sessions work.
A script is (basically) nothing more than a sequence of shell commands.
Instead of a script, you can execute line by line manually and will (mostly) get
the same result.
A terminal session (e.g. telnet, ssh, ...) is a kind of redirected shell access.
If you start a terminal session, "somewhere" is a configuration which tells the
system what kind of shell should get started.
Most systems automatically start the user profile (a file named .profile in the
HOME directory of the user) when opening a terminal session shell.
Within the user profile, the user environment is set (e.g. environment variables
like PATH, aliases ...).
If you close the terminal session, EACH and EVERY child session (aka. shell) started
from this terminal session is stopped as well, no matter if you put the stuff into
background or not.
If you don't like to get your stuff stopped, you need to "detach" the child session.
This is done either via coding of the application itself, or via "nohup" in front of
your command and a "&" at the end.
On bootup, there is no terminal session and no profile is loaded. Depending on
the boot sequence, even some devices might not be available.

You need to adapt your script (and ALL the child scripts) to deal with the circumstances
at bootup.
Either set the profile yourself or export all the necessary environment stuff in the
first script you use at bootup.
A good start is a script, which sustains the closing of your terminal session.
If you use optware (sorry that I didn't realised that earlier), you should use also
optwares mechanism for bootup scripts (/opt/etc/init.d and script starting with S99).

_________________
Please do not use private mail (PN/M) to ask questions. Use the proper forum instead. (me)

If there is no verified backup of a dataset, the dataset, by definition, is unimportant. (c't 2012)

RAID (no matter which level) never ever substitutes a backup. (me)


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